Action is the Insignia of Life

General Guide to Exercise

Sitting/Breaking up Prolonged Sitting

Limit sitting. Breaking up prolonged sitting (every 30min) with short regular bouts of slow walking/simple resistance exercises can improve glucose metabolism.


Encourage ≥ 150 min/week of moderate-intensity physical activity (i.e. uses large muscle groups, rhythmic in nature) OR ≥ 75 min/week vigorous-intensity activity spread over ≥ 3 days/week with no more than 2 consecutive days of inactivity. Supplement with two to three resistance, flexibility and/or balance sessions. As little as 30 min/week of moderate intensity physical activity improves metabolic profiles.

Physical Function

The Frailty phenotype in type 2 diabetes is unique, often encompassing obesity alongside physical frailty, at an earlier age. The ability of people with type 2 diabetes to undertake simple functional exercises in middle-age is similar to that in those over a decade older.


Resistance exercise (i.e. any activity that uses the person's own body weight or works against a resistance) also improves insulin sensitivity and glucose levels; activities like tai chi and yoga also encompass elements of flexibility and balance.

Sleep Quality

Irregular sleep results in poorer glycaemic levels, likely influenced by the increased prevalence of insomnia, obstructive sleep apnoea and restless leg syndrome in people with type 2 diabetes.

Sleep Quantity

Long (>8h) and short (<6h) sleep durations negatively impact HBA1c.


Evening chronotypes (i.e. night owl: go to bed late and get up late) may be more susceptible to inactivity and poorer glycaemic levels vs morning chronotypes (i.e. early bird: go to bed early and get up early).


An increase of only 500 steps/day is associated with 2-9% decreased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and all cause mortality. A 5 to 6 min brisk intensity walk per day equates to ~4 years greater life expectancy.

ADA/EASD 2022 consensus statement

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